worldwide use the BG-Sentinel for mosquito surveillance and monitoring
A large and growing number of
scientific studies shows
that the BG-Sentinel (a.k.a.the BG trap) is a superior trap
for mosquito surveillance and monitoring. The exceptional
capture rates of this trap
are documented in more than 130 scientific publications: Online-database with publications on
studies using the BG-Sentinel.
Gold standard trap for adult Stegomyia
"The BG-Sentinel trap has been
found to collect Ae.aegypti and Ae. albopictus
more effectively than the standard CDC light trap. [...] Use of BG-Lure
is strongly recommended. Place in areas inside or outside where you
suspect adults to occur." (Armed Forces Pest Management
Biogents' proprietary attractant, the BG-Lure, and without the need
to carbon dioxide, the BG-Sentinel already is the superior
trap for Stegomyia
mosquitoes: especially the yellow fever or dengue mosquito, Aedes
Kröckel et al. 2006; Maciel de Freitas et al. 2006, 2007a, 2007b; Williams et al. 2006,
2007), the Asian tiger
(Stegomyia) albopictus (e.g. Meeraus et al. 2008; Krüger
& Hagen 2007; Farajollahi et al. 2009,
Pagès et al. 2009), or the Polynesian tiger
(Stegomyia) polynesiensis (Schmaedick et
The addition of carbon dioxide
further enhances the sensitivity for Ae. albopictus
and Ae. aegypti.
This configuration is normally used by the Australian Quarantine
Inspection Service at Darwin since 2009/10. By mid-2011,
AQUIS had already intercepted Ae. aegypti four
times and Ae. albopictus one time at Darwin port
(Nguyen et al. 2010; Whelan et al. 2011).
"In comparison, no adult exotic mosquitoes have
been detected in routine CO2 baited EVS traps at
Darwin port areas since the current routine monitoring program
recommenced in 29/09/99. It is therefore
recommended that routine CO2 baited BG traps be
incorporated into quarantine
surveillance around risk ports in Australia to detect exotic
(Whelan et al. 2011)
Lacroix et al. (2009a, 2009b) placed wire cages, each
with three live laboratory mice, on the bottom of BG-Sentinels and
report impressive catch rates for both male and female Ae. albopictus on the island of La Réunion.
Crepeau et al. (2013) looked on the effect of BG-Sentinel trap placement on Ae. albopictus catch rates and report consistently higher catch rates for shaded or partially shaded location, compared to sunny places.
without carbon dioxide
Although carbon dioxide further
enhances the efficacy of the BG-Sentinel,
the trap is already an excellent trap for Stegomyia
mosquitoes when baited with the BG-Lure alone.
Study with the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus:
The BG-Sentinel with the BG-Lure yields results
similar to the Human
research projects in different Italian cities showed that BG-Sentinel
traps collects similar numbers of Aedes
albopictus females as human
collections in 30 to 90 minutes. The BG-Sentinel, used only with the
BG-Lure and without carbon dioxide, thus gave
excellent measures of the biting pressure. About half of the females
captured had either had a recent bloodmeal, or they were gravid or
parous; they would have been especially interesting in the search for
disease agents (summarised in Rose et al. 2010).
Other species that are
captured well without the need for carbon dioxide include Culex
quinquefasciatus (e.g. Maciel de Freitas et al. 2006)
and Ae. mediovittatus
(Little 2011). Schmied
et al. (2008) used worn socks to
gambiae. Scholte et al. (2012)
captured the invasive mosquito Aedes
atropalpus in The Netherlands without using CO2.
carbon dioxide, a wide range of mosquito species
The most potent attractant for most
mosquito species remains carbon
dioxide. Used with CO2, the
BG-Sentinel has been
shown to be a high performace mosquito trap with a wide range of
captured mosquitoes, including important invasive mosquito species.
Examples include a study in Oregon,
USA, where Irish et al. (2008) captured at least 10
species; in addition the number of species in the BG-Sentinel was
higher than that collected in an EVS trap.
Meeraus et al. (2008) caught at least
from the genera Culex,
in Northern Virginia. Ae.
japonicus, an invasive species also for Europe, was captured
better by the BG-Sentinel than the by the CDC trap or the CMT-20 trap
(all operated with carbon dioxide). The same species was also collected
in Germay by Werner et al. (2012), using a BG-Sentinel with
In Florida, Obenauer et al. (2009)
captured at least 10 species
from not less than 6 genera (Culex, Aedes, Coquillettidia, Psorophora, Toxorhynchites and Anopheles).
The BG-Sentinel significantly outperformed the two other traps also
tested in this study (the MM-X and the Fay-Prince trap) at capturing Ae. triseriatus, a
potentially invasive mosquito for Europe, as well as three additional
Antonaci Gama et al. (2012) collected at least 25
species belonging to nine genera (Culex, Aedes, Aedeomyia, Coquillettidia, Psorophora, Mansonia, Uranotaenia, Wyeomyia and Anopheles)
in the in the State of Rondônia,
Roiz et al. (2012) compared the
efficacy of different CO2-baited BG-Sentinel
traps (alone, with the BG-Lure, and with octenol) to that of a CO2-baited
CDC trap for potential West-Nile vectores in a Mediterranean
wetland in Spain. All BG-Sentinels captured significatly more Anopheles
than the CDC trap. Additionally baited with the BG-Lure or
with octenol, there was no significant difference to the CDC
modestus, Cx perexiguus,
pipiens and Cx theileri,
but a significantly smaller catch rate to the BG-Sentineil with carbon
dioxide alone. The authors also found that the BG-Sentinels collected
significantly more bloodfed
atroparvus and Cx modestus.
With the addition of either the BG-Lure or octenol, the BG-Sentinel
always performed, partly significantly, better for bloodfed Cx perexiguus,
pipiens and Cx theileri
the CDC trap. These findings are especially important for efficiently
finding disease agents such as the West-Nile Virus in mosquitoes.
Using the BG-Sentinel only with
the BG-Lure, Ae.
albopictus was first recorded on York Island in the Torres
Strait off Australia (Ritchie et al. 2006) and in Gabon
(Krüger & Hagen 2007). On the French
Polynesian Islands of Moorea and Tahiti, Marie & Bossin (2013)
recorded adults of the new-world-mosquito Wyeomyia
mitchellii using BG-Sentinels and backpack aspirators.
First records using the
with carbon dioxide include Anopheles albimanus
on Staint Kitts in the Caribbean
(Muhammend & Smith 2011)
and and adults of Mansonia flaveola in
the State of Rondônia, Brazil (Antonaci
Gama et al. 2012).
Werner et al. (2012)
captured adults of Ae. albopictus,
japonicus and Culiseta
Germany. The same surveillance program also yielded a first record of Anopheles
daciae for Germany in 2011 (Kronefeld et al. 2012).
In this surveillance regime, the traps (baited with the
were operated permanently, with the catch collected every seven days.
Carbon dioxide was added to the trap for 24 hours prior to the
collection of the catch.
A similar regime with a permanent
operation of the traps was
followed in another
program in 2012, only that the sampels were collected on a two-weekly
basis, with carbon dioxide also being added for 24 hours prior to the
collection. Ovitraps were used additionally. When
invasive mosquitoes were detected at a given location, the surveillance
regime was switched to placing more ovitraps and to putting up
additional BG-Sentinels, all with a constant use of CO2
and a weekly collection of the
catch. With this surveillance strategy, thirteen female and one male
albopictus were captured a three different
locations in southern Germany, indicating a regular
introduction of the species into the country (Becker et al. 2012). The ovitraps were not
the BG-Sentinel with carbon
in an aluvial forrest near Grafenhofen, Bavaria.
protected the catch from the frequent rainfall during the study.